Friday, March 13, 2020

Spanish Words Adopted Into English

Spanish Words Adopted Into English Rodeo, pronto, taco, enchilada - English or Spanish? The answer, of course, is both. For English, like most languages, has expanded over the years through assimilation of words from other tongues. As people of different languages intermingle, inevitably some of the words of one language become words of the other. It doesnt take someone who studies etymology to look at a Spanish-language website (or the websites in nearly any other language) to see how English vocabulary, particularly as it relates to technical subjects, is spreading. And while English now may be giving more words to other languages than it is absorbing, that wasnt always true. For the English vocabulary today is as rich as it is largely because it accepted words from Latin (mostly by way of French). But theres also a small share of the English language that is derived from Spanish. Many Spanish words have come to us from three primary sources. As you can hypothesize from the list below, many of them entered American English in the days of Mexican and  Spanish cowboys working in what is now the U.S. Southwest. Words of Caribbean origin entered English by way of trade. The third major source is  food vocabulary, especially for foods whose names have no English equivalent, as the intermingling of cultures has expanded our diets as well as our vocabulary. As you can see, many of the words changed meaning upon entering English, often by adopting a narrower meaning than in the original language. Following is a list, by no means complete, of Spanish loanwords that have become assimilated into the English vocabulary. As noted, some of them were adopted into the Spanish language from elsewhere before they were passed on to English. Although most of them retain the spelling and even (more or less) the pronunciation of Spanish, they are all recognized as English words by at least one reference source. adios (from adià ³s)adobe (originally Coptic tobe, brick)aficionadoalbinoalcove (from Spanish alcoba, originally Arabic al-qubba)alfalfa (originally Arabic al-fasfasah. Many other English words beginning with al were originally Arabic, and many may have had a Spanish-language connection in becoming English.)alligator (from el lagarto, the lizard)alpaca (animal similar to a llama, from Aymara allpaca)armadaarmadillo (literally, the little armed one)arroyo (English regionalism for stream)avocado (originally a Nahuatl word, ahuacatl)bajada (a geological term referring to a type of alluvial slope at the base of a mountain, from bajada, meaning slope)banana (word, originally of African origin, entered English via either Spanish or Portuguese)bandoleer (type of belt, from bandolera)barbecue (from barbacoa, a word of Caribbean origin)barracudabizarre (some sources, not all, say this word came from the Spanish bizarro)bonanza (although the Spanish bonanza can be used synonymously with the E nglish cognate, it more often means calm seas or fair weather) booby (from bobo, meaning silly or selfish)bravo (from either Italian or Old Spanish)bronco (means wild or rough in Spanish)buckaroo (possibly from vaquero, cowboy)bunco (probably from banco, bank)burrito (literally little donkey)burrocafeteria (from cafeterà ­a)caldera (geological term)canary (Old Spanish canario entered English by way of French canarie)canasta (the Spanish word means basket)cannibal (originally of Caribbean origin)canoe (the word was originally Caribbean)canyon (from caà ±Ãƒ ³n)cargo (from cargar, to load)castanet (from castaà ±eta)chaparral (from chaparro, an evergreen oak)chaps (from Mexican Spanish chaparreras)chihuahua (dog breed named after Mexican city and state)chile relleno (Mexican food)chili (from chile, derived from Nahuatl chilli)chili con carne (con carne means with meat)chocolate (originally xocolatl, from Nahuatl, an indigenous Mexican language)churro (Mexican food)cigar, cigarette (from cigarro)cilantrocinch (from cincho, belt)cocaine (from coca, from Quechua kà ºka) cockroach (Two English words, cock and roach, were combined to form cockroach. It is believed, but isnt certain, that the words were chosen because of their similarity to the Spanish cucaracha.)coco (type of tree, from icaco, originally Arawak ikaku from the Caribbean)comrade (from camarada, roommate)condor (originally from Quechua, an indigenous South American language)conquistadorcorralcoyote (from the Nahuatl coyotl)creole (from criollo)criollo (English term refers to someone indigenous to South America; Spanish term originally referred to anyone from a particular locality)dago (offensive ethnic term comes from Diego)dengue (Spanish imported the word from Swahili)desperadodorado (type of fish)El Nià ±o (weather pattern, means The Child due to its appearance around Christmas)embargo (from embargar, to bar)enchilada (participle of enchilar, to season with chili)fajita (diminutive of faja, a belt or sash, probably so named due to strips of meat)fiesta (in Spanish, it can mean a part y, a celebration, a feast - or a fiesta) filibuster (from filibustero, derived from Dutch vrijbuiter, pirate)flan (a type of custard)flauta (a fried, rolled tortilla)flotillafrijol (English regionalism for a bean)galleon (from Spanish galeà ³n)garbanzo (type of bean)guacamole (originally from Nahuatl ahuacam, avocado, and molli, sauce)guerrilla (In Spanish, the word refers to a small fighting force. A guerrilla fighter is a guerrillero.)habanero (a type of pepper; in Spanish, the word refers to something from Havana)hacienda (in Spanish, the initial h is silent)hammock (from jamaca, a Caribbean Spanish word)hoosegow (slang term for a jail comes from Spanish juzgado, participle of juzgar, to judge)huarache (type of sandal)hurricane (from huracn, originally an indigenous Caribbean word)iguana (originally from Arawak and Carib iwana)incomunicadojaguar (from Spanish and Portuguese, originally from Guarani yaguar)jalapeà ±ojerky (the word for dried meat comes from charqui, which in turn came from the Quechua charki)jicama (ori ginally from Nahuatl) key (the word for a small island comes from the Spanish cayo, possibly of Caribbean origin)lariat (from la reata, the lasso)lasso (from lazo)llama (originally from Quechua)machetemachismomacho (macho usually means simply male in Spanish)maize (from maà ­z, originally from Arawak mahà ­z)manatee (from manatà ­, originally from Carib)mano a mano (literally, hand to hand)margarita (a womans name meaning daisy)mariachi (a type of traditional Mexican music, or a musician)marijuana (usually mariguana or marihuana in Spanish)matador (literally, killer)menudo (Mexican food)mesa (In Spanish it means table, but it also can mean tableland, the English meaning.)mesquite (tree name originally from Nahuatl mizquitl)mestizo (a type of mixed ancestry)mole (The name for this delightful chocolate-chili dish is sometimes misspelled as molà © in English in an attempt to prevent mispronunciation.)mosquitomulatto (from mulato)mustang (from mestengo, stray)nachonada (nothing)negro (comes from either th e Spanish or Portuguese word for the color black) nopal (type of cactus, from Nahuatl nohpalli)ocelot (originally Nahuatl oceletl; the word was adopted into Spanish and then French before becoming an English word)olà © (in Spanish, the exclamation can be used in places other than bullfights)oregano (from orà ©gano)paella (a savory Spanish rice dish)palomino (originally meant a white dove in Spanish)papaya (originally Arawak)patio (In Spanish, the word most often refers to a courtyard.)peccadillo (from pecadillo, diminutive of pecado, sin)peso (Although in Spanish a peso is also a monetary unit, it more generally means a weight.)peyote (originally Nahuatl peyotl)picaresque (from picaresco)pickaninny (offensive term, from pequeà ±o, small)pimento (Spanish pimiento)pinole (a meal made of grain and beans; originally Nahuatl pinolli)pinta (tropical skin disease)pinto (Spanish for spotted or painted)pià ±atapià ±a colada (literally meaning strained pineapple)pià ±on (type of pine tree, sometimes spelled pinyon)plantain (from pltano or plntano) plazaponcho (Spanish adopted the word from Araucanian, an indigenous South American language)potato (from batata, a word of Caribbean origin)pronto (from an adjective or adverb meaning quick or quickly)pueblo (in Spanish, the word can mean simply people)puma (originally from Quechua)punctilio (from puntillo, little point, or possibly from Italian puntiglio)quadroon (from cuaterà ³n)quesadillaquirt (type of riding whip, comes from Spanish cuarta)ranch (Rancho often means ranch in Mexican Spanish, but it can also mean a settlement, camp or meal rations.)reefer (drug slang, possibly from Mexican Spanish grifa, marijuana)remuda (regionalism for a relay of horses)renegade (from renegado)rodeorumba (from rumbo, originally referring to the course of a ship and, by extension, the revelry aboard)salsa (In Spanish, almost any kind of a sauce or gravy can be referred to as salsa.)sarsaparilla (from zarza, bramble, and parrilla, small vine)sassafras (from sasafrs)savanna (from obsolete Spanish à §avana, originally Taino zabana, grassland) savvy (from sabe, a form of the verb saber, to know)serape (Mexican blanket)serrano (type of pepper)shack (possibly from Mexican Spanish jacal, from the Nahuatl xcalli, adobe hut)siestasilosombrero (In Spanish, the word, which is derived from sombra, shade, can mean almost any kind of hat, not just the traditional broad-rimmed Mexican hat.)spaniel (ultimately from hispania, the same root that gave us the words Spain and espaà ±ol)stampede (from estampida)stevedore (from estibador, one who stows or packs things)stockade (from a French derivation of the Spanish estacada, fence or stockade)taco (In Spanish, a taco can refer to a stopper, plug or wad. In other words, a taco originally meant a wad of food. Indeed, in Mexico, the variety of tacos is almost endless, far more varied than the beef, lettuce and cheese combination of U.S.-style fast food.)tamale (The Spanish singular for this Mexican dish is tamal. The English comes from an erroneous backformation of the Spanish plural, tamale s.) tamarillo (type of tree, derived from tomatillo, a small tomato)tangotejano (type of music)tequila (named after a Mexican town of the same name)tobacco (from tabaco, a word possibly of Caribbean origin)tomatillotomato (from tomate, derived from Nahuatl tomatl)toreadortornado (from tronada, thunderstorm)tortilla (in Spanish, an omelet often is a tortilla)tuna (from atà ºn)vamoose (from vamos, a form of to go)vanilla (from vainilla)vaquero (English regionalism for a cowboy)vicuà ±a (animal similar to a llama, from Quechua wikuà ±a)vigilante (from adjective for vigilant)vinegarroon (from vinagrà ³n)wrangler (some sources say word is derived from Mexican Spanish caballerango, one who grooms horses, while other sources say the word comes from German)yucca (from yuca, originally a Caribbean word)zapateado (a type of dance emphasizing movement of the heels)

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Compare and contrast the movie and poem Howl Essay

Compare and contrast the movie and poem Howl - Essay Example In this essay, an attempt is being made to compare and contrast the poem ‘Howl’ against the film by the same name and analyze the contrasts and similarities found in both these media. The speaker explains in the first section of how he was a sad witness to the destruction caused to some of â€Å"the best minds† in the generation during which he lived, thereby reviving the Beatnik era once again. Following the riotous era of Rock and Roll, they were the first to initiate and disengage themselves from the orderly post-war years. Following them was the age of Hippies, Woodstock and the rest that came behind. (Roger Ebert, 2010) The young generation was primarily Ginsberg’s audience because they were able to identify themselves with it, since the poem was capable of touching the inner core of their being. A good example of this can be seen in the opening lines of the poem which says – However, ‘Howl’ the film evokes a more balanced and serious presentation with a more youthful Allen Ginsberg wearing a pair of horn-rimmed spectacles and does not look anything like the ‘angel-head hipster’ (Allen Ginsberg, 1955, p.1) destroyed by madness. Secretly, he did nurture a desire to be one, but somehow couldn’t bring himself to reveal the secret he had within his heart. However, in the film ‘Howl’, he reluctantly discloses that he did not wish to publish his poem, because he did not want his father to find out the secret, which was his homosexuality. Rob Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman, the writer- directors of the film ‘Howl’ took into account the new Beat scene with its smoky coffee- houses, where the reading of poetry was quite common. James Franco plays Ginsberg with due meticulousness and restraint and is shown in a 1955 coffee house reading the poem, as smoke envelops the audience, giving the scene a very authentic appeal. Another important

Monday, February 10, 2020

Based on DQ1 Potential Problems and Based on DQ2 Six Steps Assignment

Based on DQ1 Potential Problems and Based on DQ2 Six Steps - Assignment Example â€Å"Feedback is an essential part of learning† (Seun, 2010). b) Implementing all changes at once is not a wise move. If a program is not working the managers must find ways to make changes, but these changes can not occur all at once because this can lead to information overload for the employees. A timetable must be created to slowly implement the changes to the total rewards program. c) It is true that during the design process of the total rewards a lot of groups should be involved such as human resources, executives, finance, employees, board of directors, and customers, but the actual implementation should involve a limited number of people. A way to involve different stakeholder groups, but limiting the number of people is by creating a committee. For a committee to be effective it must have well run meetings (Ala). d) A thorough analysis of the total reward program is needed to ensure the program is viable during both good and bad times. A good strategy to ensure the success of the program during bad economic times is to create an emergency fund that covers at least six months of the total cost of the program. A way to eliminate bias from the process is by hiring a consulting firm to evaluate the program. e) â€Å"Good communication skills are an indispensable asset without which the goals -- be it in any field -- may not be realized† (Buzzle, 2013). Firms must communicate well to their employees the different aspects of the total rewards program. Communication must be made both in verbal and written form. I completely agree that consistent communication is imperative towards the success of an enterprise. Creating a policy regarding proper communication in the workplace can help open the lines of communication between the workers and the managerial staff. At my place of work communication among the employees is good. Some of the techniques that my company uses to maintain good

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Decision-Making Model Essay Example for Free

Decision-Making Model Essay The human decision-making process has been described by the development of several frameworks. The alternative for the maximize utility of the decision is selected by a fully informed, as well as, knowledgeable decision maker in the Rational Model. A satisfactory decision alternative is sought by the decision maker due to the causes of time, information, and space constraints according to the Bounder Rationality Model. It is hypothesized by the Organizational Model that available procedures are used by the decision maker for the solution of problems of decisions in a continuously updated organizational memory. Conflicting values and interests are confronted by the decision makers in the Muddling through Model, and an incremental improvement in the outcome is achieved by the selection of alternative with minimal organizational changes. An intermeshing of problems, solutions, and decision maker interest are represented by decisions that are forced by social and political factors in an anarchistic environment according to the Garbage Can Model. The criteria are met best by the identification of alternative with the use of relationship that is made between the criteria, events, and alternative by the decision maker in the Classical Decision Theory Model. During the selection process, conflicting constraints can be confronted by the decision maker, as intangible or tangible criteria would have to be dealt in uncertain events. The situation is assessed, a single alternative is generated and evaluated, and alternative for a satisfactory solution of the problem is selected by the decision makers according to the Naturalistic Decision-Making Model. Outcomes of the decision-making process are focused by some of the proposed models like Classical and Rational Decision Theory formulations. A limited set of decision activities is highlighted by other models like Bounded Rationality Models and Naturalistic Decision-Making Models. A comprehensive and integrated view of decision-making has been offered by none of the proposals. In addition, not all the situations of the decision-making can be applied with any formulations of these proposals. For instance, operational and tactical decisions can be applied with the Organizational Model. However, strategic decisions cannot be applied with this model due to incomplete understanding of the problem, as well as, limited availability of the knowledge of the problem. In this regard, the most popular model of the human decision-making process has been the three-phase paradigm of design, intelligence, and choice by the Simon. Virtually, all other proposed frameworks have been implied by this most general paradigm. However, an implementation phase of the Simon’s formulation has been concluded with the expansion of such scrutiny. Reality is observed by the decision maker during the intelligence phase. A fundamental understanding regarding the existing problems, as well as, new opportunities is gained by the maker. In addition, the general quantitative and qualitative information is acquired by the decision maker for the addressing of different opportunities, as well as, the problems. In the design phase, a specific and precise model is developed by the decision-maker, by which, the discovered problems and opportunities are examined systematically. Decision alternatives, uncontrollable events, criteria, and numerical, as well as, symbolic relationships will be consist in this model. The ensuing choice phase constitutes of the generation of recommended actions from the evaluation of the specified alternatives by the usage of explicit models logically. The analyses and recommendations are pondered by the decision maker during the subsequent implementation phase. In this regard, the consequences are weighed, and sufficient confidence is gained in the decision-making process. In addition, an implementation plan is developed, financial, human, and material resources are secured, the plan is put into the action. After the implementation of the final choice, the new reality should be observed by the decision maker. In addition, intelligence, design, choice, and implementation should be regarded and followed by the decision maker. Moreover, the need for revisions at preceding phases might be suggested by the phase’s analyses. For instance, adjustments of the previous design might be necessitated by the analyses during the choice. Conceptually, individual or group decision-making is applied with the decision-making process in the same manner. In practice, the communication-intensive aspects of cooperative problem solving must be accommodated by the group decision-making. In addition, voting, ranking, rating, and other consensus-developing methodologies should be supported by the usage of structured techniques. Group and organizational collaboration support should be provided by the development of this consensus. Decision-making model can be operated by the use of a variety of measures. Outcomes are dealt by some measures, and process outcomes are involved by the others. Positive decision outcomes can include: Increases in returns, costs reduction, and increment in the flow of information are some of the examples of the gains in the performance of the organization. When the understanding of a person regarding a current problem, as well as, its solution is developed, the decision-maker’s maturity develops. In addition, the improvement of the general problem-solving skills also results in the maturation of the decision-maker. Objectively, recording can be done regarding the number of opportunities, problems, as well as, alternatives. Experts, as well as, person’s evaluations can assess such efforts and subjective assessments. In expert’s evaluations, practice would be observed by the experienced decision makers and the examinee’s efforts will be rated. In this regard, a structured rating form will be used for its support. The examinees are used by the directed self-examinations, and a facilitator is used for the purpose of guidance. In some decision-making situations, the improvement of the organizational performance becomes impossible due to the competition, internal restrictions, external constraints, and several other factors. Under these circumstances, the main decision outcome will be the learning, training, and various other beneficial side effects during the maturation of the decision maker. Process Enhancements in the ability of a person or group are involved in the process improvements for the implementation of the phases and steps in the decision-making process. Experts, as well as, person’s evaluations can assess such efforts and with the help of subjective assessments. In expert’s evaluations, practice would be observed by the experienced decision makers and the proficiency of the examinee during each phase and step of the decision-making process will be rated. In this regard, a structured rating form will be used for its support. The examinees are used by the directed self-examinations, and a facilitator is used for the purpose of guidance. The use of accounting tools is involved in the process tracing, in which, the decision aid is embedded for the recording, as well as, reporting of the actions of the examinee during the decision-making process. In addition, the process enhancements may be manifested through: The time that is needed during the structuring of the problem by the user is reduced in a hike in personal efficiency. In addition, in a given time period, the number of alternatives is increased during the evaluation of the user, which is also an example of the hike in personal efficiency. The time of the decision-making is reduced, and the amount of pertinent information is increased from the decision-making is an improvement in the personal productivity. Objectively, recording can be done regarding the time and number of evaluated alternatives. Expert, as well as, direct self-evaluations by the activity of an individual or group can assess the amount of pertinent information, wisdom, and knowledge, that is, subjective assessments. In any particular management situation, more importance might be given to the support for some phases, as compared with the support for others. The process should be improved for at least the relevant phases by a given aid in the decision-making process. The decision outcome and process measures have been summarized in the Table 1. In addition, the measurements have been obtained by the available approaches, which have also been summarized in the table. As such, a series of guidelines has been offered by the table for the operation of the decision-making process. For instance, the implementation phase of the decision-making process consists of confidence and commitment of the decision maker. The performance of the decision maker during these steps is measured by the process tracing, expert ratings, and directed self-evaluations, as indicated by the Table 1.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Orlando Furioso Clarifies Vergil’s Ending in The Aeneid Essay -- Orlan

Orlando Furioso Clarifies Vergil’s Ending in The Aeneid  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚   Ariosto adapts and transforms Vergil’s final episode of The Aeneid into his own conclusion in Orlando Furioso. The final scenes in the epics parallel one another in many ways, yet also show distinct differences. Ruggiero and Rodomont represent Aeneas and Turnus, respectively, and the actions of Ariosto’s characters can be interchanged with their corresponding characters’ acts in The Aeneid. Ariosto reminds us of controversy and questions that Vergil elicits in his conclusion and responds interpretively, reshaping the ending and clarifying ambiguities. Does Vergil intend to write such an abrupt, controversial ending? Some critics suggest that Vergil meant to complete the story with a more upbeat, joyous tone, but he died before he completed task. They propose a Book XIII that incorporates a large ceremonial marriage between Aeneas and Lavinia into the story as a "happy" ending. Others insinuate that Vergil purposefully concludes the heroic poem to leave questions for readers. Ariosto incorporates a vast, joyful wedding between Ruggiero and Bradamant into his novel before mimicking Vergil’s ending; he argues that Vergil intended to end where he did. Even though we often yearn to read a "happy" ending, an abrupt, controversial ending provokes more contemplation. Ariosto suggests that Vergil planned to arouse his readers’ minds, and not satisfy their common desire for a "happy" ending, by introducing discord. Does Turnus pose a threat? From one point of view, Aeneas seems to always have the military upper hand, and Turnus seems physically inferior, thus not threatening. However, from a different perspective Turnus is deceptive, thus menacing. When he thinks h... ...this act to remind us how brutal Aeneas is when he kills without hesitation. Ariosto addresses the multiple ambiguities Vergil leaves behind. He indicates that a "happy" ending is not always required to please readers and transforms Vergil’s controversial ending into a straightforward conclusion by adapting Rodomont’s character to Turnus and Ruggiero’s character to Aeneas. When the hero’s foe poses a threat and proves capable of defending himself, we do not feel sorry for his death because the hero obviously must kill to defend his own life. We find comfort in Vergil’s ending by superimposing these interpretations and corrections by Ariosto into The Aeneid. Works Cited Waldman, Guido, trans. Orlando Furioso. By Ludovico Ariosto. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983. Fitzgerald, Robert, trans. The Aeneid. By Vergil. New York: Random House, 1983.   

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Crop rotation

Agriculture, also called farming or husbandry, is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel,drugs and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. [1] Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science.The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates, cultures, and technologies. However, all farming generally relies on techniques to expand and maintain the lands that are suitable for raising domesticated species. For plants, this usually requires some form ofirrigation, although there are methods of dryland farming; pastoral herding on rangeland is still the most common means of raising livestock.In the developed world, industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture has become the dominant system of modern farming, although there is growing support for sustainable agriculture (e. g. permaculture or organic agriculture). Until the Industrial Revolution, the vast majority of the human population labored in agriculture. Pre-industrial agriculture was typicallysubsistence agriculture in which farmers raised most of their crops for their own consumption instead of for trade.A remarkable shift in agricultural practices has occurred over the past century in response to new technologies, and the development of world markets. This also led to technological improvements in agricultural techniques, such as the Haber-Bosch method for synthesizing ammonium nitratewhich made the traditional practice of recycling nutrients with crop rotation and animal manure less necessary. Historical Development of Crop Production Early man lived on wild game, leaves, roots, seeds, berries, and fruits.As the population increased, the food supply was not always sufficiently stable or plentiful to supply his needs. This probably led to the practice of crop production. Therefore, crop production began at least nine thousand (9000) years ago when domestication of plants became essential to supplement natural supplies in certain localities. The art of crop production is older than civilization, and its essential features have remained almost unchanged since the dawn of history. These features are: 1. Gathering and preservation of seeds of the desired crop plants 2.Destroying other kinds of vegetation growing on the land 3. Stirring the soil to form a seedbed 4. Planting when the season and weather are right as shown by past experience 5. Destroying weeds 6. Protecting the crop from natural enemies 7. Gathering, processing and storing the product Origin of Cultivated Crops All cultivated plants were domesticated from their wild species. However, the exact time and place of origin and the true ancestry of many crops are still as h ighly speculative as the origin of man. Man has domesticated some crop species that met his needs before the dawn of recorded history.Most of the domesticated crops were introduced into new areas far from their centre of origin by migrating human populations in prehistoric as well as in recorded times. As a result, both indigenous and introduced crops are grown everywhere in the world. Bikolandia – Rice, corn, coconut, abaca, rootcrops, copra, and banana CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS A new crop classification, the Indicative Crop Classification (ICC) has been developed for the 2010 round of agricultural censuses, and is given at the end of this appendix.The crop classification used in the 2000 agricultural census programme reflected various elements related to crops, including the growing cycle (temporary/permanent), crop species, crop variety (for example, hybrid/ordinary maize), season (for example, winter/spring wheat), land type (for example, wetland/dryland rice), crop use (fo r example, pumpkin for food/fodder), type of product (for example, fresh/dried beans), how the crop is processed (for example, industrial crops), and cultivation methods (for example, crops grown under protective cover).ICC has been developed based on the Central Product Classification (CPC) (UN, 2004a). CPC classifies goods and services into categories based on the nature of the product and industry of origin. Crop products are classified mainly according to the type of crop. CPC itself is based on the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS), a classification of the World Customs Organization. CPC is also broadly compatible with ISIC, in that the industry of origin is related to ISIC. ICC is also consistent with the classification of commodities used in FAO’s on-line database, FAOSTAT.From a statistical point of view, the crop classification should be closely related to the product classification, and to some extent to the economic activity classification (IS IC). The crop classification refers to which crops are grown, whereas the product classification refers to the product(s) generated from that crop. Thus, â€Å"mustard† is an oilseed crop, whereas â€Å"mustard seed† is the oilseed product. There is not always a one-to-one correspondence between a crop and a product. The same crop may yield two products – for example, cotton may yield cotton fibre and cotton seed. Philippines – Crop production indexCrop production index (2004-2006 = 100) The latest value for Crop production index (2004-2006 = 100) in Philippines was 111. 00 as of 2009. Over the past 48 years, the value for this indicator has fluctuated between 113. 00 in 2008 and 29. 00 in 1961. Definition: Crop production index shows agricultural production for each year relative to the base period 2004-2006. It includes all crops except fodder crops. Regional and income group aggregates for the FAO's production indexes are calculated from the underlying values in international dollars, normalized to the base period 2004-2006.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Convicts to Australia - Researching Convict Ancestors

From the arrival of the First Fleet at Botany Bay in January 1788 to the last shipment of convicts to Western Australia in 1868, over 162,000 convicts were transported to Australia and New Zealand to serve out their sentences as slave labor. Nearly 94 percent of these convicts to Australia were English and Welsh (70%) or Scottish (24%), with an additional 5 percent coming from Scotland. Convicts were also transported to Australia from British outposts in India and Canada, plus Maoris from New Zealand, Chinese from Hong Kong and slaves from the Caribbean. Who Were The Convicts? The original purpose of convict transportation to Australia was establishment of a penal colony to alleviate pressure on the overburdened English correctional facilities following the end of convict transportation to the American colonies. The majority of the 162,000 chosen for transportation were poor and illiterate, with most convicted for larceny. From about 1810, convicts were seen as a labor source for building and maintaining roads, bridges, courthouses and hospitals. Most female convicts were sent to female factories, essentially forced labor camps, to work off their sentence. Convicts, both male and female, also worked for private employers such as free settlers and small land holders. Where Were The Convicts Sent? The location of surviving records related to convict ancestors in Australia largely depends on where they were sent.  Early convicts to Australia were sent to the colony of New South Wales, but by the mid-1800s they were also being sent directly to destinations such as Norfolk Island, Van Diemens Land (present-day Tasmania), Port Macquarie and Moreton Bay. The first convicts to Western Australia arrived in 1850, also the site of the last convict ship arrival in  1868. 1,750 convicts known as the Exiles arrived in Victoria from Britain between 1844 and 1849. British transportation records of criminal transportees described on the website of the UK National Archives are the best bet for determining where a convict ancestor was initially sent in Australia. You can also search the British convict transportation registers 1787–1867  or Ireland-Australia transportation database online to search for convicts sent to the Australian colony. Good Behavior, Tickets of Leave and Pardons If well-behaved after their arrival in Australia, convicts rarely served their full term. Good behavior qualified them for a Ticket of Leave, a Certificate of Freedom, Conditional Pardon or even an Absolute Pardon. A Ticket of Leave, first issued to convicts who seemed able to support themselves, and later to convicts after a set period of eligibility, allowed the convicts to live independently and work for their own wages while remaining subject to monitoring -- a probationary period. The ticket, once issued, could be withdrawn for misbehavior. Generally a convict became eligible for a Ticket of Leave after 4 years for a seven year sentence, after 6 years for a fourteen year sentence, and after 10 years for a life sentence. Pardons were generally granted to convicts with life sentences, shortening their sentence by granting freedom. A conditional pardon required the freed convict to remain in Australia, while an absolute pardon allowed the freed convict to return to the U.K. if they chose. Those convicts who did not receive a pardon and completed their sentence were issued a Certificate of Freedom. Copies of these Certificates of Freedom and related documents may generally be found in the state archives where the convict was last held. The State Archives of New South Wales, for example, offers an online Index to Certificates of Freedom, 1823–69. More Sources for Researching Convicts Sent to Australia Online Australias early convict records, 1788-1801 includes the names of over 12,000 convicts transported to New South Wales.The Tasmanian Names Index includes convicts (1803–1893) and  convict permissions to marry (1829–1857).The Fremantle Prison Convict Database serves as an online index to Western Australia convict registers.Over 140,000 records are searchable in the New South Wales Convict Index, including  certificates of freedom, bank accounts, deaths, exemptions from government labor, pardons, tickets of leave, and tickets of leave passports. Were Convicts Also Sent to New Zealand? Despite assurances from the British government that NO convicts would be sent to the fledgling colony of New Zealand, two ships transported groups of Parkhurst apprentices to New Zealand -- the  St. George  carrying 92 boys arrived at Auckland on 25 October 1842, and the  Mandarin  with a load of 31 boys on 14 November 1843. These  Parkhurst apprentices  were young boys, most between the ages of 12 and 16, who had been sentenced to Parkhurst, a prison for young male offenders located on the Isle of Wight. The Parkhurst apprentices, most of whom were convicted for minor crimes such as stealing, were rehabilitated at Parkhurst, with training in occupations such as carpentry, shoemaking and tailoring, and then exiled to serve out the remainder of their sentence. The Parkhurst boys chosen for transport to New Zealand were among the best of the group, classified as either free emigrants or colonial apprentices, with the idea that while New Zealand would not accept convicts, th ey would gladly accept trained labor. This did not go over well with the inhabitants of Auckland, however, who requested that no further convicts be sent to the colony. Despite their inauspicious beginning, many descendants of the  Parkhurst Boys  became distinguished citizens of New Zealand.